مقالات پژوهشی

⊕Understanding the Contribution of Coherence and Cohesion to the Band Score Rating in Writing Task 2 of the IELTS Test

page 10-21

Mohammad Ali Dastgheib; Ahmad Pourghasem; Elham Gerami

Key Words:IELTS; writing task 2; coherence; cohesion; IELTS performance descriptors; IELTS band descriptors

Receive Date: 11 June 2019, Accept Date: 11 June 2019

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IELTS is a high-stakes English test for study, migration or work. It has four components, namely Speaking, Listening, Reading and Writing. In many surveys, candidates claim that the most challenging part of the test is the second writing task which is the last section of the exam as well. In this paper, we have analyzed the essentialities of this task for ones who aim to score bands 6 and 7, the two most popular band scores aspirants for different purposes yearn to earn. Analysis-based instructions curated for accomplishing band 6 are provided separately, under titles of a. coherence, and b. cohesion; however, for acing the exam with band score 7, complex methods and approaches that incorporate and merge both of the sub-skills are aptly derived from IELTS authentic reference materials and demonstrated in bright and realistic manner.

⊕IELTS vs TOEFL exam(format/content/grading criteria)

page 22-50

Arezou Ebrahimi Touri; Ahmad Pourghasem; Elham Gerami

Key Words:IELTS, TOEFL, similarities, differences

Receive Date: 11 May 2019, Accept Date: 11 June 2019

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It has been a while nearly from many years ago to the present day that two standard exams of IELTS and TOEFL have applied with the purpose of evaluating the candidates pursuing their higher-education goals  and/or immigrating to the English or non-English speaking countries. This research intends to compare the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) Internet-based test (iBT) with the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) regarding the format, content and grading of the test. Recently, these two exams have been played a prominent role of gatekeepers into English language institutions and society. In this research a brief history of each test will be described in the literature review and based on studied various comprehensive comparison researches as the methodology there will be a detailed explanation of IELTS and TOEFL exams in terms of format and content criteria separately. Subsequent to comparing each section of both exams in the discussion section the similarity and some differences will be mentioned there. Finally, it will be conducted that while the two tests have some similarities such as the same four sections of reading, writing, speaking, and listening, it doesn’t mean that the same abilities are being measured in each exam and its section. In addition, it has been recommended that whether a test taker wants to take the IELTS and or chooses the TOEFL, he or she should decide with regard to his or her interests as well as skill assessment tests.


IELTS vs. Cambridge exams: A review on different exam types

page 51-65

Shiva Homayounfar; Ahmad Pourghasem; Elham Gerami

Key Words: IELTS, Cambridge Exams, FCE, CAE, CPE

Receive Date: 11 May 2019, Accept Date: 11 June 2019

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In this article I’m going to talk about the IELTS and the other Cambridge Exams (FCE, CAE,CPE).As we all know IELTS has two kinds of exams and the listening and speaking is the same in both. It has proven to be a real indicator of an individual’s ability to communicate effectively in English. This is why the test has gained such popularity for immigration, study and work qualification. IELTS is available in two test formats: Academic or General Training.There are four parts – Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking. FCE or the Cambridge First certificate is mostly for upper-intermediate students and since it’s a minimum level required by university programs in English speaking countries it became popular. CAE is another type of exam held by Cambridge and it’s mostly used for university purposes, and it is a thorough test of all areas of language ability. CPE is the highest-level qualification – proof that you are a highly competent speaker of English. It shows the world that you have mastered English to an exceptional level. It proves you can communicate with the fluency. In this article we are also going to talk about each one of these exam types’ similarities and differences the grading points and what we should expect in each one.


⊕IELTS vs. Linguaskill Cambridge Exams: Similarities & Differences

page 66-97

Mina Mahboubi; Ahmad Pourghasem; Elham Gerami

Key Words: IELTS, Linguaskill, similarities, differences, computer adaptive test

Receive Date: 11 May 2019, Accept Date: 26 Sep 2019

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For many years, the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) has been a dominant high-stakes test of English proficiency for fulfilling emigration, education, and employment purposes. Linguaskill Cambridge Assessment, on the other hand, is a newly developed computer adaptive test based on language skills used in real-life situations providing a quick, flexible evaluation of English abilities for meeting various goals. Both exams have their importance, usage, and sets of principles. This study aims to compare IELTS with Linguaskill focusing on the similarities and differences between the two tests. To this end, scrutinizing the literature, first, a brief background on each test is offered in the sections entitled “IELTS introduction” and “Linguaskill introduction” respectively. Then, in the method section, according to the comprehensive studies of related studies as the methodology, through outlining the way the study is conducted, the qualitative descriptive nature of this research is pointed out. Subsequently, both IELTS and Linguaskill tests are explained in detail regarding test format, test content, type of questions, etc. Afterward, in the discussion section, the findings of the study are indicated by comparing the two exams and elaborating on the similarities and differences. Finally, considering all of the identified patterns, a conclusion is reached offering the necessary implications and recommendations for conducting further studies.

⊕The Predictive Validity of IELTS and Iranian Testees’ Performance in Real Context

page 98-109

Sorayya Mozafarzadeh; Ahmad Pourghasem; Elham Gerami

Key Words: IELTS, predictive validity, real-context performance

Receive Date: 19 Dec 2019, Accept Date: 20 Jan 2020

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As a widely accepted tool of assessing language proficiency, the International English Language Testing System (IELTS), assesses candidates with non-English speaking backgrounds to determine their readiness to cope with the linguistic demands of communities using English as their means of communication or as an instruction medium. These tests whether general and academic IELTS or life skill IELTS consisting of four parts and two parts, respectively, assess candidates’ reading, writing, speaking and listening requiring the candidates to obtain a definite band score depending on their situation as an entry criterion. Along with other studies having been done on different aspects of IELTS, the present paper was an attempt to study the predictive validity of this test regarding its prediction about candidates’ academic and daily life linguistic success as determined by their band score. The participants of the study were three Iranian immigrants and four students living in Toronto.  Through thematic analysis of interviews, participants’ linguistic performance was considered in real situations. The findings indicated that the participants were not as successful as the test predicted and they faced communication problems with native and non-native speakers. The study implied that IELTS can predict candidates’ linguistic successful more in communication with non-native speakers in terms of simple contact than native speakers and for native speakers, more than mere linguistic proficiency is needed.


IELTS vs. TOEFL: A Comparison Study on Format, Content and Grading Systems

page 110-125

Maryam Kashani Nazari; Ahmad Pourghasem; Elham Gerami

Key Words: IELTS, TOEFL, format, content, grading, length, similarities, differences

Receive Date: 02 Jan 2020, Accept Date: 03 Feb 2020

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The reason why International English Language Testing System (IELTS) and the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) became and remain powerful in society is a crucial question. Both large-scale tests were purposively developed for assessment of test-takers’ English language proficiency who intend to obtain admission to academic institutions or to succeed in immigration purposes. As both tests are considered as high-stakes tests affecting individuals’ future lives, they need to gain sufficient knowledge on each test to make a perfect choice. As a result, the current research contributes to enhancing test-takers’ knowledge by comparing IELTS and TOEFL in terms of their reliability, validity, format, content and grading systems. A qualitative comparison was used to identify the similarities and differences between both tests. IELTS has two versions of general and academic and TOEFL has three versions of paper-based, computer-based and internet-based. IELTS assesses four traditional skills, and TOEFL-CBT includes listening, structure/writing combination, reading and speaking. IELTS grading ranges between zero to nine while TOEFL scores are cumulative. IELTS takes two hours and half but TOEFL CBT takes four hours. Considering reliability, in IELTS there is lack of rater reliability and writing and speaking are rerated in case of inconsistencies. In TOEFL the emphasis on the selected-response item is to assure the high reliability is met. Base on the findings, the two tests are similar as they are intended to test individuals’ language proficiency and the two tests are different in terms of their format, length and content and grading systems.


IELTS Vs OET Cambridge Exams

page 126-145

Novin Kazemzadeh; Ahmad Pourghasem; Elham Gerami

Key Words: International exams, CAE, Examinees, IELTS, OET

Receive Date: 02 Feb 2020, Accept Date: 12 Apr 2020

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This research aims to illuminate the two International Exams, IELTS and OET conducted by Cambridge Assessment English (CAE). I have introduced the concept of IELTS and OET. This research presents our understanding of them. This study has three goals:  Discussing IELTS, Discussing OET and 3 Comparing these two exams. I employed qualitative method to evaluate them, using data analysis from previous studies and different websites. The finding from research illustrates why examinees take these two International Exams and how they are scored. They also indicate the content of each exam as well as their duration. Moreover, the findings show their reliability and validity. Contrary to our expectations, no research has been conducted on this question: “Which exam is easier?” The findings provide similarities and differences between IELTS and OET. We conclude that examinees need to highlight their purposes of taking these exams and other aspects such as how much each exam costs.



IELTS Vs OET Cambridge Exams(Format, Content, Grading Criteria)

page 146-172

Fatemeh Sa-edi; Ahmad Pourghasem; Elham Gerami

Key Words: OET; format; content; objectives; grading criteria; band scores

Receive Date: 02 Apr 2020, Accept Date: 03 Aug 2020

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IELTS (International English Language Testing System) Test determines the English Language proficiency of the test takers in four components: Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking. The test is available in two versions: Academic and General Training. OET (Occupational English Test) is designed to meet the specific English language needs of the healthcare sector. It assesses the language proficiency of healthcare professionals who wish to practice in an English-speaking environment. All four language skills are assessed, with Writing and Speaking tests available in 12 different areas of healthcare. All candidates sit the same Reading and Listening tests. In this article the differences between IELTS and OET, two international exams are going to be reviewed according to their “format, content, objectives and grading criteria, and band scores”.




⊕ Measuring Grammatical Range in Improving the Rating of IELTS Speaking Part

page 173-186

Naimeh Haddad; Ahmad Pourghasem; Elham Gerami

Key Words: IELTS; Speaking section; Grammatical range; Grammatical accuracy; IELTS band descriptors; Four complex grammatical forms

Receive Date: 02 Jun 2020, Accept Date: 03 Feb 2021

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In this paper, the important role of grammatical range in obtaining a higher score in IELTS has been analyzed. It has been also shown that band descriptors 6, 7 and 8 mostly tend to employ complex grammatical structures and most of the present findings state that their discourses contain some errors. Four complex grammatical forms have been defined and analyzed: conditionals, relative clauses, passives, and indirect questions which if candidates use more of, they will earn a higher band score even utterances lacking enough grammatical accuracy according to the studies examined in our paper.